Television and New Media are both very influential means of communication. The success of an event will depend mainly on the capability of the organizers to maximize the TV and New Media exposure aiming to guarantee a satisfactory return on investment to the partners of the event. An ideal return based on Media value can be between 3 and 5 times what a hosting city, a sponsor, a supplier (VIK) is investing in an event. For instance, for a sponsorship of USD 20`000 a company may request to have a Media value of its brand from USD 60`000 to USD 100`000, and obviously more if it will be feasible.

In fact, Beach Volleyball is a perfect sport for television: it has all the ingredients to make a gripping television product thanks to its great athletes and exciting matches, providing superb action in the most beautiful resorts.

This section strives to provide some recommendations concerning production and exposure, the necessary quality requirements of Beach Volleyball based on the widely acclaimed standard of the coverage which is used on the FIVB Swatch World Tour, FIVB Swatch World Championships, and over successive Olympic Games.

However, this chapter features also recommended guidelines for TV production and broadcasting for other types of events at continental and national level. Moreover, in this chapter, you may find tips to increase exposure by exploiting technology free of charge. An example is made of utilizing the New Media and YouTube to set a broadcasting platform. These means and other social media platforms may become source of revenues that need to be developed by all organizers.

The FIVB’s goal is to continue to raise the standard coverage requirements for Beach Volleyball and provide broadcasters worldwide with a consistent product throughout the season, irrespective of the event’s location, in order to maximize the exposure of the FIVB Beach Volleyball events. A positive working relationship with the event organizers and the Host Broadcasters, based on shared commitment, must be created in order to increase Beach Volleyball’s profile around the world. The integration of the event`s sponsor while producing and broadcasting an event, may be also another key element to deliver a successful event. A successful event goes in hand with having a satisfactory television exposure.


Furthermore, over the last decade a tremendous progress has been done in the New Media area and we would like to feature some tips which may be useful to you in order to increase the media value of an event and secure the necessary support from the hosting city and the partners, this can be at regional, national or international level.

This section features 3 important pillars to maximize the TV & New Media exposure of an event as follows:



A fundamental element of a successful coverage is to establish well in advance the competition schedule and the (live or live-to-tape) televised matches. For matches that are broadcast with a delay (a day after or beyond), the synchronization of the schedule with the televised matches is not so fundamental as for matches broadcast live.


Live events are the core of TV. Live events are the one thing no other medium may do.

This requires an efficient planning and a strict coordination between the host broadcaster and the promoter who need to make sure that the most important matches of an event are duly covered. Changed in the schedule of the televised matches should be avoided especially for live broadcasting as it may cause a problem with the TV rating of the event.

The Television coverage for an international FIVB event must be produced within the minimum standards set by the governing body concerned.

As a minimum requirement, the Host Broadcaster should guarantee that the following will be produced for all events:

section2-600-52For all World Tour events, it is mandatory to implement a competition schedule in order to ensure a fully packed stadium for all televised matches. For instance, it is recommended to implement a powerful Media plan and that the semi-final matches should be scheduled on Saturday afternoon for single gender events while the finals should be played on Sunday afternoon. In case of staggered double gender events, the semi-final and final matches should be scheduled as either one of the two following examples:


No sport event can survive broadcasting of an empty stadium.


Friday Afternoon:

Women’s semi-finals (or Men’s semi-finals)

Saturday afternoon:

Women’s finals (or Men’s finals)

Men’s semi-finals (or Women’s semi-finals)

Sunday afternoon:

Men’s finals (or Women’s finals)


Saturday afternoon:

Women’s semi-finals (or Men’s semi-finals)

Men’s semi-finals (or Women’s semi-finals)

Sunday afternoon:

Men’s finals (or Women’s finals)

Women’s finals (or Men’s finals)

The competition schedule should be finalized by the Organiser of a major Beach Volleyball event at least two months before the event.

Each transmission should follow the described sequence as set out in the broadcast running order (pre match, between sets and post match). This is essential to allow all broadcasters taking the live feed to know points where they can enter and exit the Host Broadcast TV feed. This is a rule that should apply also in case of the Host Broadcaster is the only TV channel of an event.


A successful production relies on extensive planning, taking into account, location, quality and quantity of the equipment, training of the TV staff and specific matters related to a sport.

The Host Broadcaster should consult the local promoter and the National Federation in order to guarantee the correct orientation of the court, taking into consideration the position of the sun in relation with the main TV cameras. The following principles should be observed:



“Because of the clarity of the picture, the 16:9 ratio and everything that goes with HD, lighting is a lot more critical. HD needs more light and better directed light.”(Ken Agaard, Senior Vice President of Operations Engineering, CBS Sports” March Maddness”)

If play is to take place at night, the stadium should be lit to an acceptable broadcast standard, possibly without any shadows or patches across the playing area. As a general rule the average illumination in the vertical plane should be 1500 lux across the playing surface and immediate surrounds, with the crowd areas lit to approximately 1000 lux. Additionally, all interview areas must have acceptable independent lighting.

Host Broadcasting Principles Usually, it is up to the Organizer of the event to secure the Host Broadcaster, and in such a case the domestic rights would be exclusive to this specific broadcaster in an established territory (i.e. Host country). Therefore, the Organizer must secure the TV production but also the TV coverage for his event for the benefits of promoting his event and the FIVB Beach Volleyball in general. The Organizers must provide a high level of event organisation (in accordance with the FIVB agreement) and make sure that the Host Broadcaster complies with the minimum production requirements in order to guarantee a feed of quality. The FIVB may look at making other types of Beach Volleyball events available to the International rights holders, in such a case, a discussion should be made with the FIVB’s TV Coordination Agency. For instance, for the Continental Cup Final it had been decided to include minimum 3 minutes features in a dedicated Highlight Show, and this required the following minimum requirements to be fulfilled:


Film sufficient footage so that FIVB can edit a 3 minutes editorial story which will be broadcasted on television channels worldwide.


Maximum footage recorded must not exceed 90 minutes.


An overview establishing shot. Match action key points and key players. The winners celebration. Crowd shots. A winners interview in English and Native language.


Standard Definition 16:9, clean of graphics or any logos.


International sound, no commentary.


Digibeta or Beta SP or DVcam or XDcam or DVCpro.

The following requirements should be followed in order to deliver quality:

  • Generalities
  • The equipment used on FIVB Host Broadcast productions must be of full broadcast quality specification, regularly maintained and serviced.

    All power for the Host Broadcast should be uninterrupted and on a different phase from the rest of the stadium power. There should be “back up” power available for the Host Broadcast production facilities, which will automatically activate in the event that the “main” power should fail. This should be synchronous, and not in any way disrupt the production signal.

  • Broadcast formats
  • Broadcasting formats across the world vary considerably, and are constantly changing and being upgraded. The 2008 Beijing Olympics produced all their transmissions in High Definition, and this standard will in time become the “normal” requirement for FIVB Host Broadcasts. However, in 2012, the production format for the FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH WORLD TOUR events will remain 625 Pal SDI 16:9 or in certain territories of the world 525 NTSC SDI 16:9, but High Definition is greatly encouraged. The Host Broadcast productions must keep all relevant action within the 4:3 “safe” area on screen, and all TV graphics are designed to fit inside the 4:3 area.

  • Camera positions
  • The following TV cameras and TV camera positions should be used for all FIVB Host Broadcast Productions. A minimum of 6 cameras are used for Open events (cameras 1-6), a minimum of 8 cameras for Grand Slam events (cameras 1-8) and a minimum of 10 cameras for the FIVB Beach Volleyball SWATCH WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS (cameras 1-10). If additional cameras are planned to be used, this should be discussed with the FIVB and its TV Coordination Agency.


    The number of TV cameras does not necessarily guarantee the best coverage. Make sure you portray the development of the competition. An experienced TV Director coordinating human resources and means is fundamental.

    Venue Set Up

    A satisfactory TV production may be also provided through a limited number of TV cameras, especially if the producer and the cameramen are experienced in producing volleyball. We have here below provided a few basic scheme that you may use for a Satellite, Challenger or Continental Cup (sub zone and zonal) event. It is very important that all TV cameras are placed on a tripod so that they are stable and at the correct distance and height.


    Ideally positioned on a structure in order to have the widest coverage over the court.


    TV Camera B


    TV Cameras E or D


    The most important cameras for the production of FIVB events is the cameras number one, and the least important camera is the number ten. See below the list of cameras by order of importance:






    Coverage / Replay camera on platform



    Close up camera on platform



    Handheld camera



    Handheld camera



    Coverage / Replay Crane camera



    Low angle slow motion camera



    Net camera



    High mounted camera



    Hand held wireless camera



    Specialist camera



    Camera supports are integral to getting solid steady images.


    See below the positioning description of the 6 most important cameras:

    Camera #1 Camera position camera use Camera 1

    Camera one should be placed on the opposite side of the arena to the main public stands, to show the major section of crowd, behind play and during a match. The ideal position is for the camera to be at a point 30m back and at an angle of 30 degrees from the centre of the court. The camera should be offset by 1-2m to the left of centre, so the face of the net can be seen. It will generally require a scaffold platform, set-up separately from the VIP stands to avoid shaking. The positioning of the roof covering the VIP tribune must take into consideration the main camera’s angle and should be put at a reasonable distance above the spectators. This camera is used for some of the main coverage and is a main replay angle.

    Camera #2 Camera position camera use Camera 2

    The ideal position for camera two is offset to the right of the net, below camera one. However, it is often difficult to obtain this ideal position, so the always achievable position on the platform alongside camera one is acceptable. This is used as a main close up camera, and for replay coverage during play.

    Camera #3 & #4 camera-position-250-167

    The cameras three and four must be on court and used handheld. They should be used for close ups of players before and after points and provide coverage for replay purposes during play. They should also be used during time-outs with built-in microphones to show and hear the players on the bench. A cable assistant during the production operations is necessary to avoid any problems or disturbances. If possible these cameras should be of wireless operation to alleviate the need for cable or a camera assistant on the court area.

    Camera position camera use Camera 3If there is a need for a ‘seat’ for the cameramen it must not be hard material and the location must be agreed with the FIVB Technical delegate and FIVB TV Coordinator no later than 3 hours prior to the first televised match.

    Camera #5 Camera position camera use Camera 5

    The crane camera is considered by many to be the best and most dynamic camera for main coverage. It should be at least 6m in length, positioned at the end of the court not facing the sun, with a good operating area around its base. It is essential an experienced crane camera operator is employed in order to optimize the use of the camera. This camera is absolutely crucial to provide good Beach Volleyball coverage and is recommended to be used as the main live camera during play for the majority of points.

    Camera #6

    Camera position camera use Camera 6The camera is on a tripod in the low end zone located on the opposite end from the crane camera. This camera is mainly used for reaction shots, players signals, set up shots before a service, and for replays. This should be a super slow motion (SSM) camera for all events.

  • Audio
  • It is essential to capture the emotion of the audience during a game. This may require several microphones but it is worthy as it will give to the TV audience the possibility to experience from home what is happening at the venue.

    It is also player conversations during the time outs and between sets. This is bets achieved by use of the directional microphones on the held camera(s) that should provide shoots of each team.

    Ideally, a microphone should be also put towards the first referee to hear the official conversation with the players.Audio Examples

    The sound levels of the public address system and music should be carefully controlled as they strongly affect the loudness of the international sound. Music and commentary should be played during court changes and time-outs only and never during rallies due to the intricacy to edit pictures at that time for the broadcaster. Copyright problems may also occur if commercial music is heard as a background noise. Likewise, commentaries via the public address system on the international sound track should not be audible as they may conflict with the commentary.

    Microphones should be strategically positioned to ensure the clearest and best possible audio signals featuring:


    As sufficient number of microphones should be used to capture these audio effects. Personnel microphones should be used on the referee and on the net. All placements must be discreet from all camera shots.


    It is the responsibility of the FIVB to provide an English language commentator on-site for events on which the FIVB deem necessary. This commentary will be used on the live transmission by some international broadcasters, as a guide commentary by others, and will be required for the highlights programming. The guide commentary provides international broadcasters with a play-by-play account in English of the key action during a match. International Broadcasters, can also record a commentary in their own language, using the English guide commentary as a basis.

    A suitable commentary position for the Host Broadcast commentary must be supplied. It should be located on the same side of court as the main camera positions, be large enough for three people and have two commentary control units including two headsets (the extra headset being for the possible use of a co-commentator) and associated monitoring. It is the responsibility of the Host Broadcaster to provide Talk Back to the English commentator. The HB must advise the commentator when the match is starting, when the director is going to cut to the city shots, throw to the Flash Interview and close the programme.

    Incidental music will be supplied by the FIVB TV Coordination Agency, cleared for worldwide transmission, which should be used with any full page graphics (e.g. set statistics) and as background to any set or match action montages.

  • TV graphicsGraphic Styles
  • Matches should be produced with the FIVB-approved international graphics, and the footage must be free from any commercial graphic insertion. The Host Broadcaster should contact the FIVB in order to receive both the brand identity guidelines and the TV graphics guidelines.

    The minimum required graphics are the following:

    minimum-required-graphics-600-50It would also be appreciated to have a minimum of statistic graphics.


    Replays are shown whenever the director considers a particular action noteworthy. Replays do not cut into live action of the game.

  • Replays

    Another important point when producing the feed of a match is the replays. The use of a replay, in a quick moving sport such as Beach Volleyball, is vital to fully visualize the skill, speed and precision of the play. Equally important is that no live action should be missed. The use of replays in the Host Broadcast should be decided upon, keeping in mind the philosophy that the replay must add to the production coverage. Alternate angles of play and unseen reactions are key sources of replay.

    In order to coordinate actions between the TV Director and the 1st Referee, the 1st Referee must be advised when a replay is being transmitted. This can be done in either of two ways:

    • The Paddle System: The Floor Manager sits on the opposite side of the court to the 1st referee and using a Paddle, indicates to the referee when a replay is being broadcast - one side is Red, to indicate to the referee to stop play, and the other side Green to indicate to the referee to continue play.
    • The Talk Back System: Equip the 1st Referee with an earpiece so the Director/Producer can call to the referee to "hold play" if required.
  • Whichever system is used, this privilege should not be abused and is suggested that play should not be held by more than 6 times a set and then for not more than 7 seconds. A clear understanding and cooperation is needed between the producer and 1st referee for this to work well.

    Italy's Marta Menegatti and Greta Cicolari in a TV interview
  • TV running order and interviews
  • Each transmission must follow the described sequence as set out in the running order (either supplied by the FIVB or created by the TV director pre-approved by the FIVB). This means that the pre and post match sequence of footage, but also between the sets, must always follow the order set by this document so to allow all broadcasters taking the feed to know points where they can enter and exit the Host Broadcast.

    For each match, the TV transmission will start on the hour and the first serve will start 5 minutes after the hour, just when the 10 minute Official Match Protocol ends. In case there is an "over-run", the following match will start as soon as possible after the end of the previous match. If a match "under-runs", it will start on the following hour

    To further enhance the programmes’ editorial content, a "flash interview" can be done in order to enable the worldwide broadcasters to have a winners’ interview after each televised match. This "flash interview" should be organised during the end of match formalities and should not exceed one minute.

  • News feed
    Television newswoman prepares for an interview
  • At the end of each day’s transmission, a 5 minute news package should be produced and played out on the satellite no more than 15 minutes after the end of the main programming. It should include a venue establishing shot, key match points, a selection of good points featuring both teams, and any celebrations and awards.

  • Recordings
  • All matches should be recorded in Standard Definition or High Definition onto new (unused) Digital beta tapes with time of Day time code for use by the FIVB’s Highlights Programmes, delayed tape recording for International Broadcasters and the FIVB’s Archive. No play must be missed and there is to be at least a 2 minute overlap on each tape, when changing tapes.

    Ideally, one complete Digital beta copy and two DVD recordings of each match should be made sent to the FIVB or its TV coordination agency immediately after each event.

  • Others
  • It is the responsibly of the FIVB and its TV Coordination Agency to manage the sales and distribution of the International Feed and News feeds. If an International Broadcaster requests a tape or access to the feed via satellite, the Host Broadcaster should pass the request on to the FIVB or its TV Coordination Agency.


    The first sports telecast took place on May 17, 1939 of a baseball game in upper Manhattan.

    If an International Broadcaster wants to attend the event, the request will be considered by the FIVB. Once the FIVB has approved, the TV Coordination Agency will advise the promoter and the Host Broadcaster who the International Broadcasters (rights holders) for their tournament and specify the rights for each broadcaster. The Host Broadcaster only needs to be provided with information pertaining to their event.

    It is the responsibility of the HB to facilitate and implement the approved International Broadcasters requests. In this case, the Host Broadcaster must be prepared to set up a booking system, allocate a person as the booking contact and produce a rate card which must be approved by the FIVB / TV Coordination Agency.

    BROADCASTING THROUGH NEW MEDIAsocial-media-400-301

    The New Media is an interactive form of communication that use the Internet, including podcasts, RSS feeds, social networks, text messaging, blogs, wikis, virtual worlds, etc. New Media makes it possible for anyone to create, modify, and share content, using simple tools that are often free or inexpensive. New Media requires a computer or mobile device with Internet access.

    The New Media possibilities allow freedom in a cost effective way to anyone to share their content with the world. The main advantage using New Media to broadcast content is that with the TV the viewers tune in to watch the offered programmes at scheduled times, whereas the New Media channels, like Youtube, allows the viewer tuning in at any time, and watching the content they chose to watch.

    In addition, New Media allows an interactive approach by receiving comments, and opinion of the audience, in exchange offering the audience to network and being part of a community interested in the same topics or matters. Bottom line, New Media allows you to reach audience that is specifically interested in Beach Volleyball and Beach Volleyball events, and grow your audience thus growing the awareness of the sport worldwide.

    In the below section, we will summarize the advantages in making YouTube your broadcast channel.

    The FIVB thanks, Mr. Claude RUIBAL / CEO / Google/YouTube (TV Broadcasting & New Media) for making available this precious information to our audience.


    YouTube currently is the world`s number 1 and the largest online video site that records 3 billion and plus views per day, where 48 hours of video is being uploaded every minute, and which has the advantage of a 70% audience coming from outside of the United States.


YouTube Worldwide
Total Unique Visitors per Month 483 M
Total Pageviews per Month 61.1 B
Average Daily Visitors per Month 74.9 M
Average Minutes per visit 17.3
Average visits per visitor per month 8.3
% Reach 39%


In terms of gender breakdown, YouTube benefits of 56% male visitors and 44% female visitors, whereas the age breakdown of YouTube visitors is divers as shown in the graph to the right.

YouTube is an international destination. It is monetized in 28 different countries/territories and available in 51 different languages/dialects.




usUnited States

ukUnited Kingdom






hkHong Kong




south-koreaSouth Korea










south-africaSouth Africa


Czech-RepublicCzech Republic








new-zealandNew Zealand

social-conversation-300-317YouTube acts as an enormous search engine, 2nd largest in the world behind Google, as hundreds of millions of searches happen every day. More than 100 million people take a social action with YouTube every week (likes, shares, comments, etc.), whereas more than 50 million videos on YouTube have been rated or include comments from the community, and above that Millions of videos are “favorited” every day.


YouTube is part of your social conversation, as more than 400 tweets per minute contain a YouTube link, and over 150 years worth of YouTube video is watched on Facebook on a daily basis. Easy access to YouTube is also facilitated as it is available on a mobile phone.


A study undertaken has proved that YouTube offers a more engaged environment! Source: OTX GM/Motorola Study, Biometrics data measured: Heart rate, Physical movement, Respiratory rate, Skin conductance TV respondents were watching In Plain Sight a US FBI drama. Web respondents were surfing on YouTube.


Nowadays, social media channels, including YouTube are easy to access at any time of the day. Any person worldwide may access any videos which are available on Youtube at any time. With more premium partners, more HD content, and the vast audience of any entertainment site on the web, Primetime is not just 3 hours a night; it is 24-hours a day. This means that any content for your audience may be available at any time.

At the present time, YouTube has also introduced for organizations to broadcast live any content. This requires contacting the YouTube technical team to set up live streaming options at least 2 months before the potentially broadcasted event/ spectacle.



DEFINITION: A channel is your “Homepage” on YouTube where you can organise all your videos under one central hub. This is the place where you sell yourself and get subscribers who want to come back and see more. YouTube partners can upgrade their channel to a Brand Channel.

The appearance, information available and setting of the channel can be edited to one`s liking. YouTube Channels may give you also opportunities to pull other video content available on the YouTube, involve and interact with your targeted community, grow people that are interested in the content that you post on your YouTube channel and many other actions which will be summarized below.

YouTube Channels could help you network, as several channels at a time may be managed, one channel for one event, for example (i.e. one channel for Continental Cup, one channel for Continental Tour, etc.). Finally, the varied channels may be linked together, so, for example, viewers interested in Continental Cup events, could also easily navigate to a channel with content about the Continental Tour.

Youtube analytics allow to trace the statistics of views, channel views, age demographic, traffic sources - how people discover your channel. You may retrieve a report of actions on your channels, which further may be used to enhance the value of your properties.



Before setting up your YouTube channel, ask the following questions to define your objectives:



STEP 1: Once you establish the objectives, make sure you use the structure of your YouTube channel to reach the targeted audience. You may use graphics, thumbnails, navigation bar, video content and side bar to make available and organize all the content on your channel.



“Blogger” template is the most rewarding to display the newest videos added and other content.

STEP 2: Personalize your Channel by branding it, linking it to your social network sources (i.e. facebook, twitter, web page, etc.). You may use the top space to place a branded banner, you may place an avatar that would stand for the event (i.e. event logo), you may customize the background of the channel, you may choose the best fitting template for the display of information on the channel, you may use the side bar to place links to your social networks and other channels, you may display playlists (a selection of videos).



Always use actions on the banner – i.e. “Subscribe now” button + link to the website + link to the social media (facebook, twitter, etc.)

STEP 3: To get the best out of your YouTube channel, you may reference the best practices highlighted in the graph below:


BEST PRACTICE – TAGS ON VIDEOS: When tagging a video, use the keywords that best describe your video. Standard 5 tags for a Sports event are described in the below graph:

graph-350-190Maximize tags and update tags if the tags become irrelevant with time, for example athlete`s name who retires, etc. If you use a phrase when tagging a video (more than one word) use quotation marks, i.e. “Beach Volleyball”.


To search the best tags use “Keyword tool” + Google insights for search + YouTube trending topics / videos.


How to find thumbnails that attract public? Organize videos in YouTube by most viewed and on the top of the list you will see the successful ones – the ones that had attracted attention.


Thumbnails should represent the content of the video and should be clear photos in focus. To make more impact of the video thumbnail, you may upload a static thumbnail (a picture with an action) you wish as the cover of the video to attract more attention, and make the viewer want to click on it to view it.

You may also brand your thumbnail by placing a logo/ emblem either of your organization or the event.


Always have minimum 5 playlists with minimum 3 videos each, The purpose to organize the content and increase public engagement is to increase the time they spend on your channel. With exciting playlists, you will make it easier for the viewer to find the content they are interested in.



YouTube has developed a summarized resource that compiles important tips, best practices, and strategies that may help one build its audience on YouTube. The Creator Playbook is not a collection of rules or guaranteed ʻtricksʼ to get more views. Instead, it presents best practices, optimization tips, and suggested strategies for building audience and engagement on YouTube.


YouTube learns a lot from its partners and constantly finds new tips and trends to share back. As the platform evolves and as new features are released, there will be updates to The Creator Playbook with new strategies, tips and optimizations to be tried. All updated versions may be obtained on Google.

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