Rules of the Game

beach volleyball – a new era

Beach Volleyball has developed tremendously in the last decades and into the new millennium, spreading over the world through an effective marketing and promotion, and the influence of the FIVB Swatch World Tour , the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Championships, and the recently launched Beach Volleyball Continental Cup, and FIVB Beach Volleyball World Cup Olympic Qualification and FIVB Beach Volleyball World Cup Final.

A minimum of hundred and forty two countries now participate in international Beach Volleyball competitions and are also able to take part in Continental and National level competitions. With this rapid growth of the sport, changes have come also in the official rules of the game.

the beach volleyball rules of the game

The official Beach Volleyball rules of the game must reflect the demands of the development of the sport.

When the rules of the game are being formulated and / or modified, the following factors are naturally taken into consideration: technical and tactical development; the spectacular nature of the sport; publicity, marketing and promotion; financial requirements, as well as cultural, recreational and societal changes.

The objectives of the Beach Volleyball rules of the game, over and above fair play, is to keep the game dynamic and appealing to the general public, while maintaining its unique outdoor image and targeted market.

what_influences_change_in_rules_of_the_game

The Beach Volleyball game has been very fortunate so far, as the FIVB has made it possible to make the necessary changes when needed to benefit this fast growing and ever changing sport. Continuous rally scoring, smaller court, new net, vibrant ball colours bring a new era to the game, making it more dramatic and entertaining than ever before.

history of most significant changes

The following section covers a summary of the most significant changes to the FIVB Beach Volleyball Rules through the years. The below changes have been listed in 4-year groups that correspond to the Olympic periods/cycle.

before 1992

  • Court lines width established as 5-8cm (previously 5cm).
  • For FIVB World Competitions three-ball system introduced (previously 1 ball).
  • Timeouts reduced to 4 (previously 4 Timeouts plus 4 Sand timeouts per match).
  • Coaching not authorised during match (previously authorised).
  • Ball can have bright colours (previously only white).
  • Protest requested by either player (previously only captain).
  • Time out called by either player (previously only captain).

1992-1996_period

1992-1996

  • For FIVB World Competitions free zone increased first to 5 m from side lines and 4 meters from the end lines (previously 3 m minimum) and then during 96 to 5 m all around the playing court.
  • For FIVB World Competitions sand depth increased for a minimum of 40 cm (previously 30 cm).
  • Inside pressure of ball decreased to 171-221 mbar (previously 300-360 mbar).
  • Only one Service attempt (previously two allowed, maximum 5 seconds each).
  • Incidental contact of hair with net is not a fault (previously a fault).
  • An injured player is allowed a 5-minute recovery time in a set (before two were possible for the same player).
  • Players designated area 3 m minimum from Scorer’s table (previously no minimum).
  • For FIVB World Competitions free zone increased first to 5 m from side lines and 4 meters from the end lines (previously 3 m minimum) and then during 96 to 5 m all around the playing court.

1996-2000_period

  • No penalty for attack-hit using overhand pass which has a trajectory not perpendicular to the line of their shoulders when player setting his or her team-mate.
  • Clarification of misconduct sanction scale - Expulsion for repeated rude conduct only applicable at format B.

  • Increase ball circumference to 66 – 68 cm for FIVB international competitions (before 65-67 cm).
  • Ball can be synthetic leather (previously only leather).
  • Player may return a ball that his/her team-mate passed outside the antenna as long as the ball is returned to the court outside the antenna (previously ball was out and play could not continue).
  • Change at the referees procedures on the order of the official hand signals. First show team to serve, followed by the nature of the fault and the player in fault in case required.
  • Reinforcement to the requirement that scorers inform the players about the correct service order.
  • Player may retrieve the ball that has crossed the vertical plan of the net totally or partly outside the crossing space (previously ball was called out and play could not continue.

  • 12 seconds is the maximum time from the end of a rally to the whistle for service under normal playing conditions.
  • Timeouts reduced to 2 per set (previously 4 Timeouts per set/match).
  • Changes introduced at the misconduct sanction scale introducing the verbal warning and the use of yellow card for penalty and red card for expulsion.
  • From November 1999 onwards the past use of yellow and red cards (yellow for warning, red for penalty) was restored.
  • Let serving in play” tested. Introduction of the new rule “while crossing the net, the ball may touch the net” from 2000 onwards.

  • Test of new court dimensions (reduced from 9 m x 18 m to 8 m x 16 m).
  • Consequently new length of net (reduced to 8.30 m / 8 m from antennae to antennae, which previously was 9 m).
  • Test of a new scoring system - Rally Point Scoring (previously points only scored upon service).
    Match format changed to best of 3 sets for all matches (previously usually only 1 set). Best two of three sets, first two sets played to 21 points, 3rd set if needed to be played to 15 points. For all sets a 2 point advantage is required with no cap.
  • Court switches immediate without delay, every 10 points in the first two sets, at every 5 points in the 3rd eventual set.
  • 2 timeouts of 30 seconds per team per set.
  • 1 minute intervals (before in Format B time between sets was 5 minutes).
  • Sanctions (misconduct and delays) not cumulative for the match but applied per set.
  • Only 1 medical timeout per match is allowed per player.

  • Rules of the Game officially approved by the FIVB Board of Administration in April 2002, which formally put into effect measures that were introduced and tested on an experimental basis during the 2001 season.
  • Reduction of size of the court to 16 x 8 m.
  • Redefinition of free zone to measure 5 m minimum and 6 m maximum.
  • Adjustment of net size to 8.5 m in length.
  • Introduction of “Rally Point System” with the following format, best of 3 sets, scoring to 21 (Sets 1 and 2), 15 (Set 3). All sets with 2-point lead no cap.
  • Adjustment of number of timeouts to 1 per set per team (Rule 19.2). Duration of timeouts remains the same (30 s).
  • Introduction of a 30 second Technical Timeout in sets 1 and 2 when the total sum of points scored by the teams equals 21 points.
  • Adjustment of court switches to occur every 7 points in Sets 1 and 2 (Rule 22.1.1). Court switch in Set 3 will remain every 5 points.
  • Redefinition of time between sets to 1 minute.
  • Clarification of misconduct sanction scale adapted to RPS format.

  • For FIVB World Competitions an 8.0 m net with smaller meshes and brandings displayed between the end sides of the net and the poles, may be used.

    Test on net contact by players – new wording/interpretation for the Rule 15. PLAYER AT THE NET
  • For FIVB World Competitions whenever the Pool Play format is implemented, Rule 7.4 (DEFAULT AND INCOMPLETE TEAM) may be subject to modifications as stated at the Specific Competition Regulations in due time issued by the FIVB, establishing the modality to be followed for treating the forfeit cases.

    Rules of the Game officially approved by the FIVB Congress in Japan, putting into effect new wording and interpretation for Rule 15, as tested on an experimental basis during the 2006 season.
  • Contact with the net or antenna is not a fault, unless it is made during the action of playing the ball or interferes with play. Incidental contact of the hair is never a fault.

    A clarification on the Rule 7.4 has been added (related to results in case of forfeit or incomplete team when Pool-Play format is implemented).
  • “For FIVB World Competitions whenever the Pool Play format is implemented, Rule 7.4 above may be subject to modifications as stated in the Specific Competition Regulations issued by the FIVB in due time, establishing the modality to be followed for treating the default and incomplete team cases”

  • Several amendments have been introduced at the Rules of the Game wording / structure, in line with the most recent improvements at the Volleyball rules, aiming to clarify the rules and make them simpler and more readable. None of these adjustment concern rule changes.

 

the existing referee resources

existing_referee_ressourcesThe FIVB Official Beach Volleyball Rules of the Game

The 2011 Beach Volleyball Referee Instructions

The various 2011 Beach Volleyball Referee instructions, as above, should be read and enforced in conjunction with the Official Beach Volleyball Rules, as they form a package that is the foundation of our officiating references.

The Official Beach Volleyball Rules shall apply to all FIVB Beach Volleyball International competitions, including the World Championships, World Tour events, Beach Volleyball Continental Cup and FIVB Beach Volleyball World Cup events, Continental Circuits, National Circuits and any Beach Volleyball event sanctioned by the FIVB, by the Continental Confederations and by the FIVB affiliated National Federations.

rules_of_the_game_must_be_enforcedWithin the purposes of the Beach Volleyball Rules of the Game, maintaining a good balance in keeping the referee as much as possible “out of the game” while allowing the personality of the players to stand out is one of FIVB`s key objectives.

Nature of officiating Beach Volleyball is very different from officiating Volleyball. Despite Beach Volleyball being a modality of Volleyball, there are

volley_ball_structurefundamental differences in the: size of the court, number of players, playing techniques, match formats, nature of the outdoor conditions (weather, image, appeal, etc.), which guide the differences in the rules between these two games.

The fundamental differences imply significantly different refereeing techniques, rule interpretations, implementation of protocols and procedures, referee duties, etc. Referees must understand these differences clearly.

The new Era at the FIVB encourages bringing Beach Volleyball closer and more integrated within the overall Volleyball structure. This has implied further changes and improvements.

Some changes and /or improvements have been implemented with immediate effect in the 2011 season by clearing up some of the existing procedures and making sure that the available tools (at the current rules and guidelines) are duly enforced by various Officials at the tournaments. Others will be ensured by the merging of the Volleyball/Beach Volleyball terminology/concepts in all areas where possible, and this is to be enforced from 2013 and onwards.

beach volleyball-volleyball rules conversion

This material is designed to highlight the main aspects that differ from the Volleyball code in order to facilitate the refereeing process and encourage referees at countries with less background in Beach Volleyball to embrace the Beach code without anxiety, and to referee the sport discipline with increased knowledge, awareness and enthusiasm.

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

GAME CHARACTERISTICS

Two teams of two players each (on the court).

3 hits for returning the ball (including the block touch).

Two teams of six players each (on the court).

3 hits for returning the ball (not including the block touch).

DIMENSIONS

Court – 16 x 8 m

Free zone with a minimum of 3 m wide.

For FIVB World Competitions, free zone with a minimum of 5 m and a maximum of 6 m from the end lines / side lines.

Court – 18 x 9 m

Free zone minimum 3 m for domestic competition.

For FIVB World and Official competitions, the Free Zone shall measure a minimum of 5 m from the side lines and 8 m from the end lines.

SURFACE

Leveled sand, as flat and uniform as possible.

surface

For the FIVB World Competitions the sand must be at least 40 cm deep.

The surface must be flat, horizontal and uniform.

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, only a wooden or synthetic surface is allowed.

LINES

Two sidelines and two end lines mark the playing court. All lines are positioned inside the dimensions of the playing court.

There is NO centerline.

All lines are 5-8 cm wide.

line

The lines must be of a color, which contrasts sharply with the color of the sand.

Court lines should be ribbons made of a resistant material, and any exposed anchors should be of a soft, flexible material.



 

The court lines include two sidelines and two end lines that mark the playing court, plus a Centre line and two Attack lines one on each court.

Both sidelines and end lines are drawn inside the dimensions of the playing court.

All lines are 5 cm wide.

They must be of a light color which is different from the color of the floor and from any other lines.

layout_contour

Beach Volleyball Court Layoutfleche

court_layout

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

ZONES AND AREAS

Unless for the Service zone, NO corresponding zones and areas!

 

-Front zone

-Service zone

-Substitution zone

-Libero Replacement Zone

-Warm-up area

-Penalty area

WEATHER

The weather must not present any danger of injury to the players.

TEMPERATURE

The minimum temperature shall not be below 10° C (50° F).

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, the maximum temperature shall not be higher than 25° C (77° F) and the minimum not lower than 16° C (61° F).

LIGHTING

For official international competitions played during the night, the lighting on the playing area should be 1,000 to 1,500 lux measured at 1 m above the playing surface.

 

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, the lighting on the playing area should be 1,000 to 1,500 lux measured at 1 m above the surface of the playing area.

NET

The net is 1 m wide and 8.5 m long. It is made of 10 cm square mesh.

square_mesh-350-266

The top and bottom horizontal bands are 7-10 cm wide.

Advertising is permitted on the horizontal bands.

For FIVB World Competitions an 8.0 m net with smaller meshes and brandings displayed between the end sides of the net and the poles may be used. Publicity may be printed on the above items as per FIVB regulations.

 

The net is 1 m wide and 9.5 to 10 metres long (with 25 to 50 cm on each side of the side bands), made of 10 cm square black mesh.

The top and the bottom a horizontal bands are white and respectively 7 and 5 cm wide.

good_bad_set_up
The Beach Volleyball Net

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

SIDE BANDS

Two color bands, 5-8 cm wide (same width as the court lines) and 1 m long, fastened vertically to the net and placed above each sideline. They are considered part of the net.

Advertising is permitted on the side bands.

 

Two white bands are fastened vertically to the net and placed directly above each sideline.

They are 5 cm wide and 1 m long, and considered part of the net.

HEIGHT OF THE NET

The height of the net shall be 2.43 m for men and 2.24 m for women.

The height of the net may be varied for specific age groups.

 

The height of the net shall be 2.43 m for men and 2.24 m for women.

The height of the net may be varied for specific age groups.

POSTS

The posts supporting the net, with a height of 2.55 m, must be fixed to the ground at an equal distance of 0.7-1 m from each sideline to the post padding. Posts must be padded.

 

The posts supporting the net are placed at a distance of 0.50 -1.00 m outside the sidelines. They are 2.55 m high and preferably adjustable.

For all FIVB, World and Official Competitions, the posts supporting the net are placed at a distance of 1 m outside the sidelines.

BALL

The ball is made of a material which does not absorb humidity, i.e. more suitable to outdoor conditions since matches can be played when it is raining.

Color: bright colors (such as orange, yellow, pink, white, etc.)

ball_color-350-257
The beach volleyball ball

Circumference: 66 to 68 cm

Weight: 260 to 280 g

Inside pressure: 171 to 221 mbar or hPa (0.175 to 0.225 Kg/cm2)


 

The ball is made of flexible leather or synthetic leather case with a bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material.

 

Its colour may be a uniform light colour, or a combination of colours.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Circumference: 65-67 cm

Weight: 260-280 g.

Inside pressure: 0.30 to 0. 325 kg/cm2 (4.26 to 4.61 psi) (294.3 to 318.82 mbar or hPa)

ball_homologating_the_mikasa_ballMikasa Ball

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

The Beach Volleyball court conditions are not permanent and can quickly change during the day. It is the referee’s responsibility to monitor that the court and the net are respectively square plus perpendicular and at the right height; that the sand and the equipment are safe; and that the sand level is maintained between sets and matches in order to secure equal conditions to either playing courts (see RDM 2011 - App 3 Procedure for a Court Inspection).

They are also responsible for monitoring the ball conditions before and during the match. The Technical Supervisor takes the final decision on weather conditions and eventual watering of the courts.

TEAMS

A team is composed exclusively of two (2) players.

Only the two players recorded on the scoresheet may participate in the match.

For FIVB World Competitions, coaching is not allowed during a match.

 

A team may consist of up to twelve (12) players, one coach, one assistant coach, one trainer and one medical doctor.

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, the medical doctor must be accredited beforehand by the FIVB.

For FIVB and World Competitions for Seniors, a team may consist of a maximum of fourteen (14) players (a maximum of twelve (12) regular players).

One of the players, other than the Libero, is the team captain.

EQUIPMENT

A player’s equipment consists of shorts or a bathing suit. A jersey or “tank-top” is optional except when specified in Tournament Regulations.

Players may wear a hat.

For World Competitions players of a given team must wear uniforms of the same color and style according to tournament regulations.

A player's equipment consists of a jersey, shorts, socks (the uniform) and sport shoes.

The colour and the design for the jerseys, shorts and socks must be uniform for the team (except for the Libero).

The shoes must be light and pliable with non-marking rubber or composite soles without heels.

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, it is forbidden to wear shoes which are predominantly black.

women athletes` equipment

women_uniform-350-357

front_piece
The beach volleyball athlete`s equipment / handbook requirements.
Beach Volleyball Women`s uniform usually consist of a two piece swimming suit (but could be also a one piece) fitted in order to allow free movements, and facilitate the needs of the sport in terms of comfort, flexibility, weather conditions, possibility of sand irritating the body, etc. For international competitions, a dedicated layout of an athlete`s uniform designates areas located for international and local sponsor marks and/or brands. For international competitions, usually there are also restrictions for additional local sponsor branding exposure (i.e. tattoo, arm band, head band, etc.) which are set out by the sanctioning body of a Beach Volleyball tournament. The below examples feature the women athletes` uniform / equipment layouts specifically for the FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour events. For more specific information about uniform restrictions at an FIVB Beach Volleyball World Tour, please refer to the 2012 Beach Volleyball Handbook, Chapter 4, pages 144-145.

not_mandatory

long_sleeve_women_top_front_viewFollowing a proposal on behalf of the African Volleyball Confederation, the 2010 Beach Volleyball Commission decided to allow adapted Beach Volleyball uniforms for the women athletes in order to respect their religious beliefs and facilitate their participation. The various layouts now allow adaptation also for weather conditions and the specific needs of participating women athletes.

women_cap_front_view-300-381

GOOD TO KNOW

The newly approved and varied layouts of women uniforms have been already successfully used during the first phases of the
CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup.
half_sleeve_women_top_front_view
uganda
Women athletes at a CAVB Continental Cup leg in Uganda

sleeveless_women_top_front_view-500-628

women_uniform_2_Zimbabwe
Women athletes at a CAVB Continental Cup leg in Zimbabwe

men athlete`s equipment

Beach Volleyball Men athletes` uniform consists of shorts and of a jersey or a “tank top” (optional except if specified in Tournament regulations). Usually, the sanctioning entity and/ or the organizer determine the exact (if at all) layout of the athletes uniforms in terms of sponsors` exposure.

promoters_sponsormen_uniform-350-261

 

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

EQUIPMENT

Players must play barefoot except when authorized by the referees.

Player’s jerseys (or shorts if players are allowed to play without shirt) must be numbered 1 and 2.

The number must be placed on the chest (or on the front of the shorts).

 

The first referee may authorize one or more players to play barefoot. For FIVB, World and Official Competitions it is forbidden to play barefoot.

Players' jerseys must be numbered from 1 to 18

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, players’ jerseys must be numbered from 1 to 20

The team captain must have on his/her jersey a stripe of 8 x 2 cm underlining the number on the chest.

AUTHORIZED CHANGES

If both teams arrive at a match dressed in jerseys of the same color, a coin toss shall be conducted to determine which team shall change.

If requested by a player, the first referee may authorize him/her to play with undershirts and training pants.

 

Players are allowed to play in training suits in cold weather, provided that they are of the same colour and design for the whole team (except for the Liberos) and numbered according to Rule 4.3.3.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Referees must check that players of the same team always have matching uniforms, and that they comply with the tournament regulations (including sponsorship dimensions, number of logos, accessories, and temporary tattoos).

If the players are found to be incorrectly wearing the wrong uniforms (numbers 1 and 2) before, during or after a match this will be corrected by changing the uniforms and or scoresheet and or serving player as appropriate. No penalty shall apply.

For cold weather conditions the referee may authorise players to wear appropriate clothes.

Cold temperature and pouring rain conditions / Beach Volleyball Handbook requirements

sample_of_cold_weather
A sample of cold weather uniform worn by athletes
During severe weather conditions players may be allowed to use uniforms composed of long sleeved tight shirt, long tight pants (down to the ankle and not to the knees). These usually should be consistent in style and color with the marketing rules set out by the sanctioning party for the players’ shorts and briefs. The Technical Supervisor may evaluate after having consulted with the official medical staff to allow or not players wearing this special uniform.

The cold weather uniform is composed of a tight shirt with long or short sleeve and/or long tight pants. This uniform must be tight to the body and consistent in style, length and color for both athletes.

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

CAPTAIN

Both players are authorized to speak to the referees.

Either player can indicate to the first referee their wish to institute a Protest Protocol.

At the end of the match, both players thank the referees.

If either player previously requested a Protest Protocol to the first referee, he/she has the right to confirm it as a protest, having it recorded on the scoresheet.

 

Only the game captain is authorized to speak to the referees.

Only the game captain may choose to protest against a decision and immediately indicate to the first referee that he/she reserves the right to record an official protest on the score sheet at the end of the match.

At the end of the match the team captain thanks the referees.

When it has been notified in due time to the first referee, the captain may confirm and record on the score sheet an official protest.

LOCATION OF TEAMS

The player’s chairs must be 5 m from the sideline, and no closer than 3 m from the scorer’s table.

 

The benches for the teams are located beside the scorer's table, outside the free zone.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Players can speak to Referees while the ball is out of play, providing it is in accordance with Rules 6.1.7 a) - c). Players have NO right to question judgement calls, this includes, but is not limited to, actions of players setting overhand with fingers. They may only inquire as to the application or interpretation of a rule. The Referee’s explanation, in case required, should be clear and concise, use correct English Technical Terminology which may as appropriate be accompanied by hand signals. No further delays should be permitted and the players urged to immediately resume play. Players have the right to formally protest about referees’ application or interpretation of the rules before, during or after a match (see RDM App 5- Protest Protocol).

Participants must refrain from actions to cover up faults. This includes intentionally covering up a ball mark in the sand after Referees have blown the whistle to stop the game. Players have no right to insist that a Referee review a ball mark on the sand, and only where significant doubt exists as to whether the ball is in or out the 1st Referee may decide to review a ball mark in strict compliance with the “FIVB Ball Mark Protocol” RDM App 7.

Coaches are allowed in the court during respective team’s warm-up until the start of the official match protocol but they are not allowed within the playing area during the match as coaching during the match is forbidden.

Beach Volleyball Refereeing

referee_explains_his_call_to_the_player
Referee explains his call to the player
referee_requests_the_player_to_resume_play
Referee requests the player to resume play
referee_delegate_dealing_with_a_protest_protocol
FIVB Referee Delegate dealing with a Protest Protocol
team_bench_players_area
Team`s bench – Players` area

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

SCORING SYSTEM

The match is won by the team that wins two sets.

In the case of a 1-1 tie, the deciding set (the 3rd) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of 2 points.

A set (except the deciding 3rd set) is won by the team that first scores 21 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 20-20 tie, play is continued until a two-point lead is reached (22-20, 23-21 etc).

default_and_incomplete_team-350-218

 

The match is won by the team that wins three sets.

In the case of a 2-2 tie, the deciding set (the 5th) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of 2 points.

A set (except the deciding, 5th set) is won by the team which first scores 25 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 24-24 tie, play is continued until a two-point lead is achieved (26-24; 27-25; …).

DEFAULT AND INCOMPLETE TEAM

If a team refuses to play after being summoned to do so, it is declared in default and forfeits the match with the result 0-2 for the match and 0-21, 0-21 for the sets.


A team that does not appear on the playing court on time is declared in default.

A team declared incomplete for the set or for the match loses the set or the match. The opposing team is given the points, or the points and the sets needed to win the set or the match. The incomplete team keeps its points and sets.

For international competitions whenever the Pool Play format is implemented, Rule 7.4 may be subject to modifications as stated in the Specific Competition Regulations, establishing the modality to be followed for treating the default and incomplete team cases.

 

If a team refuses to play after being summoned to do so, it is declared in default and forfeits the match with the result 0-3 for the match and 0-25 for each set.

referees_run_the_coin_toss_1
Beach Volleyball Referees run a coin toss
referees_run_the_coin_toss_2

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

COIN TOSS

In the second set the loser of the coin toss in the first set will choose:

a) Either the right to serve or receive the service or b) the side of the court.

 

In the case of consecutive warm-ups, the team that has the first service takes the first turn at the net.

WARM-UP SESSION

3-minute warm-up period at the net; if not, they may have 5 minutes.

6-minute warm-up period together at the net; if not, they may have 10 minutes.

If either captain requests separate (consecutive) warm-ups at the net, the teams may do so for 3 minutes each or 5 minutes each.

Guidelines Notes

After the coin toss the captain must sign the scoresheet to confirm the details recorded especially that the number (1 or 2) of the player matches the player’s name. They must also confirm their service order and side of the court as soon as possible.

It is important that Referees keep to the total protocol time allocated to the teams so that the tournament is not prolonged during the day (see RDM 2011 - App 4 Match Protocol).

It is important to follow the protocol, to avoid confusion should a forfeit occur because of one team not being present at the court.

A Referee should not assume a team will not be present based on a previous forfeit by the team. Be sure that the scoresheet is completed before allowing anyone to sign it.

The relevant Delegate(s) have to be notified in case of a possible forfeit. The coin toss should be conducted; the players present notified of the official warm up time beginning by blowing of the whistle and ending by blowing of the whistle. Then a whistle indicating teams to start the match. If at this time a team is incomplete the forfeit is given (see RDM 2011- App 8 Forfeit and Default Protocol)./span>

Collecting scoresheetMatch protocol

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

TEAM LINE-UP

Both players of each team must always be in play.

 

There must always be six players per team in play.

SUBSTITUTIONS

There are NO substitutions or replacement of players.

The players who are not in the starting line-up of a set are the substitutes for that set (except for the Libero).

POSITIONS

There are NO determined positions on the court.

There are NO positional faults.

 

At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be positioned within its own court in the rotational order (except the server).

SERVICE ORDER

Service order must be maintained throughout the set (as determined by the team captain following the coin toss).

 

Rotational order is determined by the team's starting line-up, and controlled with the service order, and players' positions.

SERVICE ORDER FAULT

A service order fault is committed when the service is not made according to the service order. The scorer must correctly indicate the service order and correct any incorrect player.


A rotational fault is committed when the service is not made according to the rotational order.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Players may position themselves anywhere within their respective court. Therefore, there are no positional faults at the moment of the servers hit. Once a team has determined its service order, it must be maintained throughout an individual set. The scorer must hold up a numbered paddle (1 or 2) to indicate the correct server.

If the incorrect player is found to have served, they can only be penalized by loss of service (or points scored) if they prior to their service have been correctly notified by the scorer, 2nd Referee or 1st Referee that they are incorrect in accordance to the service order. If the correct procedure for notifying a wrong server has not taken place (e.g.: late notification or incorrect notification by the scorer) the service order is merely corrected with the team(s) maintaining their points and a new service made.

scorers_indicating_the_service_order
Scorers indicating the service order

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

BALL “OUT”

The ball is “out” when it falls on the ground completely outside the boundary lines (without touching them).

 

The ball is "out" when the part of the ball which contacts the floor is completely outside the boundary lines.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Referees must remember that the ball mark could be completely outside the line, but the ball called "in" if the ball contacted the boundary line, which was slightly raised by a mound of sand. Referees must be aware that the line may move due to the ball landing near it. This should not influence the decision, which is based on actual contact with the line.

TEAM HITS

Each team is entitled to a maximum of three hits for returning the ball over the net.

 

The team is entitled to a maximum of three hits (in addition to blocking).

SIMULTANEOUS CONTACTS

If simultaneous contacts by the two opponents over the net lead to a “held ball”, it is NOT considered a fault.

 

If simultaneous hits by two opponent over the net lead to extended contact with the ball, play continues.

ASSISTED HIT

Within the playing area, a player is not permitted to take support from a teammate or any structure/object in order to reach the ball.

However, the player who is about to commit a fault (touch the net or interfere with an opponent, etc.) may be stopped or held back by a teammate.

 

Within the playing area, a player is not permitted to take support from a team-mate or any structure/object in order to hit the ball.

However, a player who is about to commit a fault (touch the net or cross the centre line, etc.) may be stopped or held back by a team-mate.

ball
Simultaneous contact over the net leading to a joust

ball_in_ball_out
first_referee_runs_a_ball

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HIT

The ball must be hit, not caught or thrown. It can rebound in any direction. Exceptions:

In defensive action of a hard driven ball. In this case, the ball can be held momentarily overhand with the fingers.

The ball may touch various parts of the body, only if the contacts take place simultaneously. Exceptions:

At the first hit of the team, unless it is played overhand using fingers (exception Rule 13.4.2 a), the ball may contact various parts of the body consecutively, provided that the contacts occur during one action.

 

The ball must not be caught and/or thrown. It can rebound in any direction.

The ball may touch various parts of the body, provided that the contacts take place simultaneously. Exceptions:

At the first hit of the team, the ball may contact various parts of the body consecutively provided that the contacts occur during one action.

FAULTS AT PLAYING THE BALL

HELD BALL:

A player does not hit the ball unless when in defensive action of a hard driven ball or when simultaneous contacts by the two opponents over the net lead to a momentary “held ball”.

 

CATCH:

The ball is caught and/or thrown; it does not rebound from the hit

Guidelines notes

During the action of players setting overhand with fingers, the ball must be played with one quick motion. There must not be any significant movement of the ball downwards whilst in the hands and the ball may not visibly come to rest in the player's hands.

Referees must understand the nature of these ball contacts concentrating on their length (the emphasis quite correctly with the catch or thrown ball is the duration of the contact) and how technically correct or clean the contact was (the emphasis with the double contact is that this is not indicated by the spin of the ball but by the fact that a clear fault – time difference between the two hands that contact the ball – has occurred and that this is visible for the Referee).

In defensive action of a hard driven attack, the ball can be slightly held, overhand with fingers. A good indication of a hard driven attack is the time in which the defensive player had to react to play the ball. If the defensive player had time to make a decision or to react by changing, their technique as to how to play the ball it was probably not a hard driven ball.

 

player_setting_his_partner

Calling held or catch balls at setting overhand with fingersHeld and Catch balls at setting overhand with fingersCalling double contacts at setting overhand with fingersWrong calls at non existing double contactsGood setting overhand with fingers

Assessing a defence

defensive_action_on_a_hard_driven_ball-350-258
Defensive action on a hard driven ball


BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

BALL CROSSING THE NET

The ball that has crossed the vertical plane of the net to the opponent’s free zone totally or partly outside of the crossing space, may be played back within the team hits provided that:

(...)

A player, however, may enter the opponents’ court in order to play the ball before it crosses completely the lower space or passes outside the crossing space.

 

The ball that has crossed the net plane to the opponent's free zone totally or partly through the external space, may be played back within the team hits, provided that:

The opponent's court is not touched by the player;

(...)

PENETRATION IN THE OPPONENT’S COURT

A player may enter into the opponent’s space, court and/or free zone, provided that this does not interfere with the opponent’s play.

 

To touch the opponent's court with a foot (feet) is permitted, provided that some part of the penetrating foot (feet) remains either in contact with or directly above the centre line.

To touch the opponent’s court with any part of the body above the feet is permitted provided that it does not interfere with the opponent’s play.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Contact by players is not always interference. If the contact is incidental and did not interfere with the players' ability to make play on the ball there is no fault. Interference may be penalised if the contact is not physical but merely threatened. The player may be in the path of the player making a play on the ball, thus causing the player to have to go around them to make a play on the ball. Interference may be penalised if the player’s ability to play the next or subsequent hit is impeded.

An interference fault may be penalised regardless of the player’s position on the playing court or in the free zone. The Referee may in some cases clearly see that the player has deliberately substantially altered their position in order to interfere with the other players attempt to play the ball. This is a fault.

Contact-under-the-net-leading
Contact under the net leading to an eventual interference

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

CONTACT WITH THE NET

Contact with the net by a player is not a fault, unless it is made during the action of playing the ball, or it interferes with the play. Incidental contact of the hair is never a fault.

 

Contact with the net by a player is not a fault, unless it interferes with the play.

PLAYER’S FAULTS AT THE NET

A player penetrates into the opponent’s space, court and/or free zone interfering with the latter’s play.

A player touches the net or the antenna during his/her action of playing the ball or interferes with the play.

 

A player interferes with the opponent's play while penetrating into the opponent’s space under the net.

A player’s foot (feet) penetrates completely into the opponent's court.

A player interferes with the opponent’s play by (amongst others) touching the top band of the net.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Players are considered to be "in the action of playing the ball" when they are judged to be close/near to and attempting to make a play on the ball and this from the beginning of their action towards the ball until its completion, meaning that the action is completed at the moment the concerned player regains balance or starts a new move.

Net faults by players, who are not "in the action of playing the ball", but "interfere with play" are those that are judged as causing a distraction, and/or judged as causing a change in the integrity of the net thus, effecting or altering the play result.

Team member actions can be considered as interfering with play if they involve obstructing opponents in their legitimate playing actions; creating clear unfair advantage to their own team, or clear unfair disadvantage to the opponent team; disturbing or damaging equipment within the playing area causing an interruption to the rally.

A player who deliberately reaches towards and contacts the ball through the net when the ball is on the opponent’s side causing the opponents not to have a play on the ball will be penalised. This situation is penalised as a net touch as the player is considered deliberately to have caused the net to touch them, not the ball causing the net to touch them.

Conversely, a ball hitting a player through the net when the player did not attempt to deliberately contact the ball would not be a penalty (e.g.: they had a potential play on the ball or were in an existing position).

contact-dispute

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

SERVICE (FIRST SERVICE IN A SET)

In the second set, the loser of the coin toss in the first set will choose either the right to serve or receive the service or the side of the court.

 

The first service of the first set, as well as that of the deciding set (the 5th) is executed by the team determined by the coin toss.

SERVICE ORDER

When the receiving team wins the rally, it gains the right to serve and the player who did not serve last time will serve.

 

The players must follow the service order recorded on the line-up sheet.

AUTHORIZATION OF THE SERVICE

The first referee authorizes the service after having checked that the correct server is in possession of the ball behind the end line and that the teams are ready to play.

 

The first referee authorizes the service, after having checked that the two teams are ready to play and that the server is in possession of the ball.

EXECUTION OF THE SERVICE

At the moment of the service hit or take-off for a jump service, the server must not touch the court (the end line included) nor the ground outside the zone. His/her foot may not go under the line.

If the line moves because of the sand pushed by the server, it is not considered a fault.

The server must hit the ball within 5 seconds after the first referee whistles for service.

 

At the moment of the service hit or take-off for a jump service, the server must not touch the court (the end line included) or the floor outside the service zone.

The server must hit the ball within 8 seconds after the first referee whistles for service.

player-number-1-serving
Player number 1 serving

serving-1

serving-2-250-179

player-number-2-serving
Player number 2 serving

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

SCREENING

The teammate of the server must not prevent either opponent, through screening, from seeing the server or the path of the ball. On the opponent’s request, they must move sideways.

 

The players of the serving team must not prevent their opponent, through individual or collective screening, from seeing the server or the flight path of the ball.

Guidelines notes

The server's foot may not go under the line. After the serve, they may step or land outside the service zone, or land inside the court. Referees must understand that a line may move because a player kicks / pushes the sand. Therefore, the line moving is not necessarily a fault.

If the opponents request a player causing a screen to move they must move sideways or bend downwards so the player has a clear view of the server. Therefore, there should never be screening faults. It is the responsibility of the players to indicate the fault to each other, either by hand or verbally so that it can be corrected before the service whistle.

The 1st Referee should check before authorising service that no receiving team player is signalling for a screen. They should additionally check again the receiving team if the server significantly alters their position. A team using this as a delaying tactic shall be sanctioned for delay.

ATTACK HIT

No concept of FRONT COURT or BACK COURT – either player can pass or hit from any position. Any player may carry out an attack-hit at any height.

 

A back-row player may complete an attack hit at any height from behind the front zone.

ATTACK-HIT FAULTS

A player completes an attack-hit using an “open-handed tip or dink” directing the ball with the fingers.

A player completes an attack-hit using an overhand pass, which has a trajectory not perpendicular to the line of the shoulders, except when setting his or her teammate.

 

During an attack hit, tipping is permitted only if the ball is cleanly hit, and not caught or thrown.

illegal-legal-attack

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

The open hand "dink or tip" to direct the ball to the opponent’s court with the fingers is a fault. The ball poked with fingertips or knuckles is allowed. In case of fingertips contact the fingers that contact the ball must be together and rigid.

Caution must be taken when a player contacts the ball first with the fingers and then pushes the ball into the block causing a "held ball" over the net. This first contact is a fault and should be penalised. If both teams contact the ball simultaneously, causing a held ball (over the net), this is not a fault and play should be allowed to continue.

A player may complete an attack-hit using an overhand pass (which has a trajectory perpendicular to the line of the shoulders), either forwards or backwards. The Referee should consider the line of the player’s shoulder at the time of first contact with the ball. Players must establish their shoulder position before the contact is made.

BLOCK

No concept of FRONT COURT or BACK COURT – either player block at any time.

 

Regardless of the height of the ball contact. Only front-row players are permitted to complete a block, but at the moment of contact with the ball, part of the body must be higher than the top of the net.

BLOCKING CONTACT

A blocking contact is counted as a team hit. The blocking team will have only two more hits after a blocking contact.

blocking-contact

 

A block contact is not counted as a team hit. Consequently, after a block contact, a team is entitled to three hits to return the ball.

TIME-OUTS

Each team is entitled to a maximum of one time-out per set.

For FIVB World competitions, in sets 1 and 2, one additional 30 second Technical Timeout is automatically allocated when the sum of the points scored by the teams equals 21 points.

 

Each team is entitled to a maximum of two time-outs per set.

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, in sets 1-4, two additional 60-second “Technical Time-Outs” are applied automatically when the leading team reaches the 8th and 16th points.

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

REQUESTS FOR TIME-OUT

Time-outs may be requested by the players.

 

Regular game interruptions may be requested by the coach or in the absence of the coach by the game captain, and only by them.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Any player may request a timeout while the ball is out of play and before the whistle for service. The Referee should commence their timing of Timeout (TO) from the time of the completion of the signal for timeout, when it is clear that both teams have seen this signal, not when the last player leaves the court. The following steps should be followed under usual circumstances for the timing of Timeouts: 15 seconds to leave the court; 30 seconds timeout for the players at designated chairs; 2nd Referee to blow their whistle at 45 seconds and signal for the players to return to the court; 15 seconds to return to the playing court and prepare to serve or for reception. Total elapsed time should not exceed 1 minute.

In sets one and two a technical timeout (TTO) will occur when the sum of the points is 21 points. The TTO will be signaled as a court switch with the teams then following the same procedure as a timeout.

DELAYS TO THE GAME

Delay sanctions remain in force for the entire set.

12 seconds shall be the maximum time from the end of a rally to the whistle for service under normal playing conditions.

 

Delay sanctions remain in force for the entire match.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Many different delaying tactics are being used by players while attempting to slow down the pace of the match. Referees are required to carefully identify these while monitoring that a constant pace shall be implemented between rallies. Referees should be consistent in the application of warnings / penalization for similar types of delaying tactics.

Examples of delaying the game are: prolonging the 12 seconds between rallies without authorisation (by altering lines, excessive communication to their partner, use of towels, wiping of glasses etc); attempting to slow down the pace of the match; discussions with officials about decisions involving playing actions or misconduct; prolonged discussions with officials about rules interpretation and/or application, or declining to continue the match after the Referees having given their explanation; prolonging timeouts, etc.

time-out
Time Out

Technical timeout

player-referee

12 Seconds rule

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes referees must insist that players between rallies move directly to their position for service or reception. The time between rallies shall be 12 seconds. However, this may be extended to 15 seconds with the permission of the Technical Supervisor in the case of extreme weather conditions such as humidity or heat. The time between rallies may be shortened if both teams are ready.

The 12 seconds rule particularly applies to players not delaying the time between rallies by altering lines, excessive communication to their partner, use of towels, wiping of glasses etc. Players should generally proceed directly to serve, but if they wish to use a towel, wipe glasses, etc must do so immediately at the end of the rally so that they will start getting ready to serve/receive at around 8 seconds at the limit. The Referee should initially, in the case of small delays between rallies give verbal warnings (indicating teams to return to commence play), but a pattern of continued delays must be sanctioned.

INJURY

An injured player is given a maximum of 5-minutes recovery time one time a match. The referee must authorize the accredited medical staff to enter the playing court to attend the player.

If the player does not recover or return to the playing area at the conclusion of the recovery time, his/her team is declared incomplete.

 

If an injured player cannot be substituted, legally or exceptionally, the player is given a 3-minute recovery time, but not more than once for the same player in the match.

If the player does not recover, his/her team is declared incomplete.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

An injured player is given a maximum 5-minute recovery time only once in a match, but injuries should be resolved with minimum delay. Recovery time refers to the time needed for accredited medical personnel to provide relevant medical treatment. When treatment has been completed or if no treatment can be provided, play must resume or the relevant team is declared incomplete (R 7.4.3.). However, even if the official medical personnel advise the player not to continue, the final decision of whether to resume play or not, rests with the player. They may choose to continue playing even against medical advice.

Under all circumstances, the official medical personnel MUST be requested to come to the court as it will be their responsibility to supervise the treatment and report to the 1st referee when this has been completed.

The timing of the commencement of the recovery time allowed for an injury shall start from the arrival at the court area of the appropriate medical personnel (among the official medical personnel available on site), or in case the player choose to be treated by their own medical personnel, from the moment they have made the request.

accredited-medical-doctor

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

PROLONGED INTERRUPTION

Should one or several interruptions occur not exceeding 4 hours in total, the match is resumed with the score acquired, regardless of whether it continues on the same court or another court.

 

Should one or several interruptions occur not exceeding 4 hours in total, if the match is resumed on another playing court; the interrupted set is cancelled and replayed with the same team members and the same starting line-ups.

The sets already played will keep their scores.

COURT SWITCHES

The teams switch after every 7 points (Set 1 and 2) and 5 points (Set 3) played.

During court switches the teams must change immediately without delay.

 

After each set, the teams change courts, with the exception of the deciding set.

In the deciding set, once the leading team reaches 8 points, the teams change courts without delay and the player positions remain the same.

INTERVALS

The interval between each set lasts 1 minute.

 

All intervals last three minutes.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

If the teams fail to switch at a multiple of 7 (5 in set 3), they must switch at the earliest possible moment when the ball is out of play. There is no fault or deduction of points and play continues as if the teams switched at the correct time. The points are recorded on the scoresheet in the Court Switch Box as the actual score, even though it is not a multiple of 7 (or 5 in set 3) (see RDM 2011 App 2 Scoresheet Instructions).

There is no interval during switch of courts. Teams must switch courts immediately but not before being whistled for court switch by the Referee.

Court switch
players-seated-at-their-bench-during-an-interval
Players seated at their bench during an interval

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

MISCONDUCT

Incorrect conduct by a team member is classified in four categories according to the degree of the offense.

 

Minor misconduct offences are not subject to sanctions.

Incorrect conduct by a team member is classified in three categories according to the seriousness of the offence.

CATEGORIES

Unsportsmanlike conduct: argumentation, intimidation, etc.

Rude conduct: acting contrary to good manners or moral principles, expressing contempt.

Offensive conduct: defamatory or insulting words or gestures.

Aggression: physical attack or intended aggression.

 

Rude conduct: action contrary to good manners or moral principles, or any action expressing contempt.

Offensive conduct: defamatory or insulting words or gestures.

Aggression: actual physical attack or aggressive or threatening behaviour.

SANCTION SCALE

Depending on the degree of the incorrect conduct, according to the judgment of the first referee, the sanctions to be applied are (they must be recorded on the scoresheet):

WARNING: for unsportsmanlike conduct

PENALTY: for rude conduct or repeated unsportsmanlike conduct

EXPULSION: repeated rude conduct or offensive conduct

DISQUALIFICATION: for aggression

A player may receive more than one MISCONDUCT PENALTY in a set.

Sanctions are cumulative in nature only within an individual set.

EXPULSION or DISQUALIFICATION due to offensive conduct or aggression does not require a prior sanction.

 

According to the judgment of the first referee and depending on the seriousness of the offence, the sanctions to be applied and recorded on the score sheet are:

PENALTY: for the first rude conduct in the match

EXPULSION: for offensive conduct or for the second rude conduct in the same match by the same team member.

DISQUALIFICATION:for physical attack or implied or threatened aggression, or for the second offensive conduct in the same match by the same team member, or the third rude conduct in the same match by the same team member.

The repetition of misconduct by the same team member in the same match is sanctioned progressively (the team member receives a heavier sanction for each successive offence).

EXPULSION or DISQUALIFICATION due to offensive conduct or aggression does not require a previous sanction.

swatch
Referee issues a penalty

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

SANCTION CARDS

Warning: yellow card
Penalty: red card
Expulsion: yellow + red card (jointly)
Disqualification: yellow + red card (separately)

 

Warning : verbal or hand signal, no card
Penalty : yellow card
Expulsion: red card
Disqualification: yellow + red card (jointly)

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

Referees must judge emotional responses in the context of maintaining an appropriate level of demeanour, presentation of the match and equity in penalties applied. It is nevertheless also very important to remember that according to Rule 6.1 participants must behave respectfully and courteously not only towards the referees, but also towards other officials, their teammate, the opponents and spectators.

They must penalise more actively cases of misconduct that are clearly not normal acceptable communications between an official and a player. This would include gestures, tone of voice, abuse of equipment (especially ball and net) and protracted discussions with officials. Referees are empowered to utilise whenever required the penalisation of Rude Conduct (red card) without prior warning.

Cases of players excessively abusing match equipment are considered as being Rude Conduct.

At FIVB World Competition’s a sanction fee is applied whenever equipment abuse or officials and on court personnel abuse by players leads to a penalty or higher sanction by the referee. For further guidance at this specific area, please refer to the “FIVB misconduct sanction fee scale – implementation guidelines”.

Sanctions are cumulative only within an individual set. A player may however receive more than one red card for misconduct in an individual set.The scorer and Referees should be able to differentiate between a red card for repeated Unsportsmanlike conduct and a red card for Rude conduct (see RDM 2011 - App 2 Scoresheet Instructions).

Every time a player “calls a fault” during play, thus trying to influence the Referees, the player must be sanctioned at the end of the rally. A verbal warning shall apply for the first instance in the set. The second and following offences of this type in the same set shall be sanctioned according to theMisconduct sanction scale (unsportsmanlike conduct).

 

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

FIRST REFEREE

The first referee shall not permit any discussion about his/her decisions. However, at the request of a player, the first referee will give an explanation on the application or interpretation of the rules upon which he/she has based his/her decision.

If the player disagrees with the explanation and formally protests, the 1st referee must authorize the commencement of a Protest Protocol.

 

The first referee shall not permit any discussion about his/her decisions. However, at the request of the game captain, the first referee will give an explanation on the application or interpretation of the Rules upon which he/she has based the decision.

If the game captain does not agree with the explanation of the first referee and chooses to protest against such decision, he/she must immediately reserve the right to file and record this protest at the conclusion of the match. The first referee must authorize this right of the game captain.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

At FIVB World Competitions, the First Referee must carefully implement the “FIVB Protest Protocol” especially noting the 1st Referee’s duties prior to the commencement of a Protest Protocol (see FIVB Protest Protocol – 2011 RDM App 5).

Due to the very demanding conditions of Beach Volleyball Referees should prepare themselves to be ready to officiate and rest, take food / liquids when appropriate during the days play.

SECOND REFEREE

The second referee authorizes the time-outs and court switches, controls the duration of such and rejects improper requests.

In the case of an injury of a player, the second referee authorizes recovery time.

During the match, the second referee decides, whistles and signals interference due to penetration into the opponent’s court and space under the net.

 

The second referee authorizes the interruptions, controls their duration and rejects improper requests.

In the case of an injury of a player, the second referee authorizes an exceptional substitution or grants a 3 minute recovery time.

During the match, the second referee decides, whistles and signals penetration into the opponent's court, and the space under the net.

first-second-referee-at-work

Second referee at workPost match protocol

Checking the scoresheetDelivering the scoresheet

 

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

REFEREES’ HAND SIGNALS

Immediately after the referee blows the whistle to signal the end of the rally, they have to indicate with the official hand signals:

If the fault is whistled by the first referee:
a) the team to serve,

b) the nature of the fault (when necessary),

c) the player at fault (when necessary).

The second referee will follow the first referee’s hand signals by repeating them.

 

Immediately after the referee’s whistle to signal the completion of the rally, they have to indicate with the official hand signals:

If the fault is whistled by the first referee:
a) the team to serve,

b) the nature of the fault,

c) the player at fault (if necessary).

The second referee will follow the first referee’s hand signals by repeating them.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

In Beach Volleyball it is necessary to show the nature of the fault if the ball lands near the line (1-2 metres); If the touch is small; To clarify the decision where uncertainty exists; In all other circumstanceswhen a fault occurs (ball handling, net contact, etc).

SCORER

Prior to the match obtains the signatures of the captains.

During the match indicates the serving order of each team by displaying a sign numbered 1 or 2 corresponding to the player to serve. The scorer indicates any error to the referees immediately.

Announces to the referees the end of the sets and the court switches.

 

Prior to the match obtains the signatures of the captains and the coaches.

During the match controls the serving order of each team and indicates any error to the referees immediately after the service hit.

Announces to the referees the ends of the sets, and the scoring of the 8th point in the deciding set.

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

If the wrong server is moving towards the service zone or is in possession of the ball to serve, the scorer should inform the 2nd Referee and player(s) to correct the error. If the wrong server contacts the ball, the scorer should sound a buzzer / bell (or other equipment supplied) to indicate a serving order fault has occurred.

For FIVB World Competitions the use of an assistant scorer is mandatory.

player-signs-the-scoresheet
Player signs the scoresheet
scorers-conference-with-the-2nd-referee-during-a-to
Scorers conference with the 2nd Referee during a TO

Scorers cooperating with the 2nd referee

BEACH VOLLEYBALL

VOLLEYBALL

LINEJUDGES

It is compulsory to have two linejudges in official international matches.

They perform their functions by using flags (30 x 30 cm).

 

For FIVB, World and Official Competitions, it is compulsory to have four line judges.

They perform their functions by using flags (40 x 40 cm)

Beach Volleyball Guidelines notes

The linejudge’s work is very important, especially during high level international matches. In addition to calling “ball in” or “out”, as well as other faults they are responsible for, linejudges must pay close attention to the touch by the block, because this counts as a first team hit and may be called upon to indicate to Referees a block touch (for a possible four hit fault by the Referees).

Faults should be signalled clearly, to ensure beyond any doubt that the first Referee sees them.

If the ball touches the antenna, crosses over it, or flies outside it into the opponent’s court, the linejudge closest to the direction of the ball, must signal the fault.

The linejudge must understand clearly the definition of the ball out (i.e.: passing completely outside or over the antennae) and understand its various consequences in their signalling (when to signal, appropriate signal for each circumstance etc). There are many different circumstances that may occur.

A linejudge may be asked to participate in a ball mark protocol. The linejudge must indicate correctly the ball mark in the sand and any other facts as requested by the Referees.

line-judge
Line judges at work
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